Preventable upper extremity injury caused by interventions such as those described above is difficult to estimate and likely under-reported.

In the United States alone,  there are over 2 million patients with acquired  lymphedema, over 1 million patients with congenital lymphedema and several million patients with chronic kidney disease.

It is suggested  that preventable lymphedema  related injury events due to ill-advised needle sticks, trauma, PICC Lines and IV access result in thousands of injuries and even needless death and suffering to patients each year.


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